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An institutionalized agricultural extension service in Nepal began with Indian and American support in 1951 soon after the fall of the Rana Regime, and the creation in 1955 of the Department of Agriculture (DOA) under which a fully responsible Extension Division was operational through network of zonal extension offices (Ganesh Kumar et al. 2003). Between 1966 and 1995, DOA underwent a series of reorganizations through splits and mergers to form two departments (Departments of Agriculture and the Department of Livestock and Services) under which the extension services are operating today. During these years of organized extension services, Nepal witnessed several shifts in approaches to extension from the fertilizer-based green revolution type technology extension approach based on resourceful farmers, to the World Bank T&V approach in three districts of Nepal. Most of these agricultural extension delivery models were top-down in nature, and educational programs and services were planned at the DOA or Department of Livestock Services (DLS) headquarters. For a full report on the pluralistic agricultural extension system in Nepal click HERE

The Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services (MEAS) project conducted an assessment of the pluralistic extension system in Nepal in December 2011. The executive summary of the report is available at and the full report is available through the USAID Development Experience Clearing House,

Discussion Group

(Picture credit: DoAE, used with permission)

Related Resources

Sharma, V.P., editor (2006): Report of the APO Seminar on Enhancement of Extension Systems in Agriculture held in Pakistan, 15-20 December 2003. Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo.
  • Nepal, pg. 136-144

Public Sector

Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, MOAC,
  • Department of Agriculture:

Still seeking information on extension and advisory services provided by:

  • Public Research Institutions with Extension Unit

  • Semi-autonomous Governmental Extension Organizations

  • Non-Governmental Organizations

  • Farmer Based Organizations

  • Private Sector Companies

Andrea Bohn,
24/1/2011 7:14